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Time stamp: 04:10:46-24/5/2024


Neural Informal Word Identification with BERT

Lingxuan Meng


Supervised by Fernando Alva Manchego; Moderated by Liam Turner

Imagine a student is writing an essay about their most recent project. In order to state the purpose of their research, they could say:

- “We investigated ...”.

However, to make the text follow a more academic style of writing, the same sentence could be rewritten in one of the following ways:

- “An objective of this study was to investigate ...”

- “This study set out to investigate ...”

- “This research examines ...”

Coming up with this type of academic phrases can be particularly challenging for people unfamiliar with academic writing, or who are non-native English speakers.

The aim of this project is to develop a system or resource that can assist writers by identifying phrases that are non-compliant with the academic style, and suggesting suitable academic paraphrases.

Useful References:

- Academic Phrasebank (

- Automatic Compilation of Resources for Academic Writing and Evaluating with Informal Word Identification and Paraphrasing System (

- Automatic Assistance for Academic Word Usage (

Final Report (08/12/2022) [Zip Archive]

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